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Simultaneously the cultural Polonization

People continued to worship their old gods in secret. Simultaneously, the cultural Polonization of the Lithuanian nobility began.

Democratic mechanisms falter because of the remains of the serfdom mentality. Compulsory elementary education was introduced, and the Bible was translated into the indigenous languages. However, it could not affect the considerable progress that had been made in education over the century. Between and serfdom was abolished in the German Baltic provinces of Estland, Livland, and Courland. It was divided into four autonomous bishoprics and lands of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword.

In that area also came under Russian control. This Jesus was sad and withdrawn, consumed by his inner sorrow. Books in Lithuanian or Latgalian could be published only in the Cyrillic i.

The only difference was that the persecutions were focused on peasants who refused to abandon their ancient traditions. The Latvians also were considerably Germanized, and the majority of both the Estonians and the Latvians belong to the Lutheran church. Eastern Latvia was inhabited by the Selonians and Latgalians. In some cases, Russians took on the nationalities of their adopted Baltic countries and were thus counted among the ethnic majorities. As a result, the Swedish dominion over Livonia and Estland passed to Russia, though a special status of wide autonomy was maintained.

People continued to worship their old