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We have used this approach to narrow down the analysis to a subset of genes that were also shown to be differentially expressed when analyzed by conventional two-dimensional hierarchical clustering. In unsupervised analysis, the data are organized without the benefit of external classification information. Each oligonucleotide on the chip is matched with an almost identical one, differing only by a central, single base mismatch.

The principle behind microarrays is that complementary sequences will bind to each other. Microarrays hold much promise for the analysis of diseases in the oral cavity. This array also can be used to locate chromosomal aberrations related to cancer, such as segments of allelic imbalance, which can be identified by loss of heterozygosity.

Microarrays hold much

Supervised methods include k-nearest neighbor classification, support vector machines, and neural nets. Early diagnosis and management of oral cancer is correlated with increased survival. Large-scale identification, mapping, and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome. Functional genomics is the study of gene function through parallel expression measurements of a genome. Clinicians will be able to use microarrays during early clinical trials to confirm the mechanisms of action of drugs and to assess drug sensitivity and toxicity.

Currently, microarrays are primarily a research tool. Squire, Application of microarrays to the analysis of gene expression in cancer. Normalization is a process that scales spot intensities such that the normalized ratios provide an approximation of the ratio of gene expression between the two samples. Microarray can be a boon to researchers as it provides a platform for simultaneous testing of a large set of genetic samples. The technique, though limited at present in its applications due to the cost factor, may widen its prospects once there is increase in the availability of commercial products.

The principle behind microarrays is

Gene microarrays have been used for comparative genomic hybridization. Recent studies have illustrated the effectiveness of microarrays in oral cancer. Gene expression levels in different stages of progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.